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I think cardio is the main thing. Lower resting and exertion heart rate should help your bottom time. For finning, I'd build up those muscles by finning--either in the pool with mini-fins, or with no fins and a kickboard.
Core muscle strength only to the extent you need it for lifting/wearing tanks on shore. Arms we don't really use that much, but neck muscles we do, at least in the water.
So I'm thinking cardio, a little core, legs for finning, neck muscles. Others may have other opinions, or want to charge you money for a fitness program, but that's my curbstone thinking.
Not specifically for diving (but it can't hurt), I run, bike, kayak, swim, and lift weights (well, a "Chuck Norriss" machine, that is). I find that the running and biking satisfy my needs for endurance and cardio, but the swimming is important. I discovered that I tend to have cramps in my calves unless I spend some time swimming with fins. The weights help with upper body conditioning, which is important for getting back on the boat where I dive (can be a tad rough, sometimes). Generally, a simple but well rounded program has been successful for my needs.
20 mins. a day on exercise bike. Arm stretches using "rubber bands"--5 mins. Some light calesthentics (sp!). Usually rock shovelling to clear our beach-10+ mins. Try to dive weekly or bi-weekly in cold season. Wish I had access to a pool close by.
I personally focus on swimming any where between a half mile to full mile every day...that's my cardio workouts. Three times per week I focus on strength training. I've been doing that for years, and I am pleased with the results.
I split my gym workouts pretty evenly between weight training and cardio. I also do workouts at home using kettlebells. For the investment in both time and money, kettlebells are a better investment ... about $50 per bell and you don't need a gym for a great workout. But, being a creature of habit, I still like to hit the gym and work out with my friends there too.
There's a fellow ScubaBoarder named Coach Izzy who has a book and website on kettlebell workouts designed specifically for divers ...
It was just below freezing and snow was falling steadily. As we stepped toward that portal separating a cold and dreary world from the tranquility and wonder of another dimension teeming with life and color a passer-by shook his head and muttered "crazy". Poor fool. If he only knew. (Airsix)
I joined a gym and started working with a personal trainer for 30 minutes, three times a week. It helps that he's also a scuba diver, as is the manager of the gym. It's definitely paying off in strength and fitness improvement. I also try to walk my border collie 1.5 miles a day, but not in the summer. It's just too darn hot.
To stay fit for diving I follow the same regimen I use to stay fit for life, fit into my clothes, etc. I do one hour of strenuous cardio at least 6 days a week—usually 7—and I lift weights 3 times a week. The weight workout is as hard as I can make it with 50-lb dumbbells or less. That's all my rickety shoulders can manage without significant trauma, and those are the heaviest my gym owns anyway. (They are about half the bodyweight of our typical gym user.) All followed by 20-minutes of ice (frozen peas, actually) on the knees and shoulders.
Lately I am also trying to break up long sitting spells at work with walking or even just standing—whatever I can manage.