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This is a name given by a BBC TV program to an (unwise) diving method developed by some warm-sea native peoples; it is swim-diving surface-demand using plastic air hoses fed from an air compressor of the type used to feed jackhammers (UK: pneumatic drills). It is described in this Wikipedia page:-
It's also commonly called 'Hookah' diving or 'Surface supplied' diving.
There are many types of surface supplied diving, using a compressor and direct air feed to the submerged diver. It ranges from the activities you describe (garden hose on a pneumatic tool compressor) through to extreme-depth, mixed gas, commercial and military diving applicaitons.
To state that the term 'compressor diving' only applied to 'native' divers, would be inappropriate.
Search the forums here on Scubaboard for previous discussions about it.
I know about surface-demand diving with proper kit. In the case described in the BBC TV 1 program the diver held the end of a constant-flow air hose in his mouth without valve or mouthpiece or breathing mask.
I used the term "compressor diving" because that is the term that the BBC TV 1 program used for it.